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Ghetto in Białystok (2)



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Treść: Districts for people of Jewish nationality and descent, which have been created in Germany and later, also in occupied countries during the Second World War by the nazi authorities, are called the hitlerite ghettos. Jewish Housing District (jüdischer Wohnbezirk), it was an official name, which was used by nazi authorities. The first hitlerite ghettos were created already in 1939y. and they were not closed. They have been surrounded with wall or barbed wire since 1940y.. The biggest ghettos were in Warsaw (500 thousand people) and in Łódź (300 thousand people). Ghettos – these were transitional period in operation of Jews`extermination, which was started by hitlerite authorities.
German army captured Białystok in June 1941y. and created a ghetto almost at once after they had taken over the city (26.07.1941y.). It was for Jews from Białystok and suburban towns. It was situated among streets: Sienkiewicza, Lipowa, Armatnia (≈Artyleryjska?), Poleska, Fabryczna, Plac Wyzwolenia and it took up big part of the city. There lived about 42.000 people.
Inhabitants were not allowed to leave the ghetto without authorities` permission under threat of death. Jewish Council (Judenrat) exercised power in the ghetto with for example Order Service. Administration consisted in executing German orders.
In ghettos there used to be a huge overpopulation. There was not enough food for everybody so people suffered from famine. People suffered from many illnesses because they had not medicines, fuel and there were bed sanitary conditions. Epidemics spread and killed a lot of people. All these factors and a fact that Jews were separated from the rest of community decimated Jewish people. Fortunately in Białystoks` ghetto there were better conditions than in the big ghettos like in Warsaw or in Łódź. All Jews from ghetto in Białystok, besides few people, who were rescued by Poles, died in concentration camps and on places of mass executions. A lot of people died also in an uprising.
Germans started to liquidate the ghetto in 1943y. They killed immediately about 800 people on the place and took about 10.000 people to concentration camps. Members of Jewish organizations, which were assembled in Antifascist Bloc, started on 16.08.1943y. an one-sided fight with 1.000 of German military policemen after Germans had started to liquidate the ghetto. Ghetto was having its houses burnt. Jews were taken on a former military training square, which was situated near Grodzieńska Road, and to suburban forests. The other were taken to the concentration camp called Treblinka and were killed there. Daniel Moszkowicz was leader of uprising and Antifascist Organization`s staff was under his command. Insurgents got most weapons from Armia Krajowa. There left only about 5.000 – 10.000 inhabitants in the ghetto in half of September. The liquidation was finished in October 1943y. The uprising suffered defeat because there were not enough weapons. The all district, which was changed into the ghetto, was knocked down. Only few Jewish families survived.
Places of mass executions are situated in forest Wilczy Grunt near Grabówka (16.000), on Pietrasze (6.000), near Nowosiółki (4.000), near Bacieczki (3.000).
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Czytano: 4414 , autor: Mafej , Ocena: 129.29

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⇒Dodano: 2008-10-23 18:50:59
⇒Czytano: 4414
Autor: Mafej


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