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Treść: England :
Area: 130 420 km2
Population: 48,5 m.
Capital: London
Government: returns 529 members to Parliament; a mixture of 2-tierand unitary local authorities, with 36 countries, six metropolian countries, and 27 unitary authorities.
Head of State: Queen Elizabeth II Mother
Head of Government: Tony Blare
Religion: Christian, with the Church of England as the established church, 31.500.000; and various Protestant groups, of which the largest is Methodist 1.400.000; Roman Catholic about 5.000.000; Muslim 900.000; Jewish 410.000; Sikh 175.000; Hindu 140.000.
Major Towns: Birmingham, Cambridge, Coventry, Leeds, Leicester, Manchester, Newcastle, Nottingham, Oxford, Sheffield, York; ports Bristol, Dover, Felixstowe, Harwich, Liverpool, Portsmouth, Southampton.
Currency: pound sterling.
Major industrion: while, bunches, vitreous, porcelain, ceramic, chemical, paper, woody, beer and weed.
Major river: Thames River, Sewern River.
Highest peak: Cross Fell - 893m. above the sea level
Nationality: People from all over the world.
Official Language: English.
History in facts:
400-200 BC.- British Isles conquered by the Celts.
55-54 BC.- Romans led by Julius Caesar raided Britain.
AD. 43-60 - Romans conquered England and Wales, which formed the province of Britannia; Picts stopped them penetrating further N.
5th-7th centuries - After Romans withdrew, Anglo-Saxons overran most of Engalnd and formed kingdoms, including Wessex, Northumbria, and Mercia.
5th-6th centuries - British Isles converted to Christianity.
829 - King Egbert of Wessex accepted as overlord of all England.
1066 - Normans led by William 1st defeated Anglo-Saxons at Battle of Hastings and conquered England.
1215 - King John of England forced to sign Magna Carta, which placed limits on royal powers.
1265 - Simon de Montfort summoned the first English parliament in which the towns were represented.
1455-85 - Wars of the Rosses: House of York and House of Lancaster disputed the English throne.
1536-43 - Acts of Union united Wales with England, with one law, one parliament, and one official language.
1607 - First succesful English colony in Virginiamarked start of three centuries of overseas expansion.
1707 - Act of Union between England and Scotland created United Kingdom of Great Britain, governed by a single parliament.
1760-1850 - Industrial Revolution: Britain becamethe first industrial nation in the world.
1775-83 - Britain lost 13 American colonies; empire continued to expand in Canada, India, and Australia.
1793-1815 - England at war with revolutionary France.
1800 - Act of Union created United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, governed by a single parliament.
1914-18 - United Kingdom played a leading part in World War I
1939-45 - United Kingdom played a leading part in World War II
History : ranges was entanglement in 6th -4th century B.C. by Celts tribes - Geals, Cymbrs, Britts. Since 1st century B.C. started up get to there Romans, which occupation progress from 1st century up to about 410 year. When Romans Empire downfall lands conquers by Anglo-Saxon. From 793 year began raids Viking and Danes, whom took northeastern and eastwardly part of England. In 10th century sovereigns Wesseks abided states on the island, created scapes anglo-saxon states. In 1066 year. King Harold 2nd perished on the battle of Hastings, and his suppressor, Duke of Normandy Willhelm, styled thenceforward Willhelm 1st Winner, he has been lord of these lands and posited Normands' dynasty. He organized useful national administrations and rammed feudal system.
In years 1154-1485 to throne seat Plantagenets' dynasty. One of charter member that dynasty, king John without Land, billed in 1215 year Great Card of Freedoms - Magna Charta Libertatum, document, which became the scape of english system, restrictively control royally in favour of powerful people, attributively statutes the other state and gave guarantee of civils right. In 16th century federated Wales with England. Territorial contentions with France to disadvantage resolved centennial war (1337 - 1453).
Upon many wars at throne, in year 1558 queen of England became Elizabeth 1st. That has been the golden century as well in economy like and in culture England. In year 1707 followed formally association England and Wales with Scotland in United Kingdom. Upon the end 18th century started in England industrial revolution. In connection with invented vaporizer machine in the beginning of 19th century began quickly progress industry, which put steads dominantly up to here agricultures. Time dominations Queen Victoria (1837-1901) that term was the most expansions colonial. In first years of 20th century the United Kingdom was richest country on the whole world.
Geography
England is the largest and the most important region, possesing the center of government and administration in London. It's south - east part (the so called Chalk Country, is called "the meadow of England" because of beautiful gardens, flowers, orchards and fertile fields. The Midlands are more industrialed. The so called Black Coutry within Stoke-on Trent, Birmingham and Nottingham abounds with coal, iron ore and granite.
Climate in England is very characteristical. In England is soft marine climate. For the whole year the sky is clouded, sometimes the sun was shines.
In winter in England it is not so cold like in Poland. Winter in there is warm. In winter temperature vary from three to seven degree. When in Poland we have snow in England it is raining. In England freqvently occur a phenomenon so-called fog. It's very characteristic for England. In summer temperature vary from ten to seventeen degree. In the other climate is by far warmly. Greatest yearly sum of rainfall performs in England mountain and amount to 3000 mililiters. Typical climate in England it follows that this is island. Warm Bay Current brings with us from sea a warm and rainy weather. Very negatively affected on the weather in England.
England in plurality pieces is terrain lowland, surround by Atlantic Ocean and by North Sea. Of overland parts of Europe sequestrates them Channel La Manche. Shoreline is well unfurled, there are many bays and estuaries. Largest top is located in northwestward mountains and amount to - 893 metre named (CROSS FEEL).
Disasters :
England is country situated, where disasters are very rarely. Most important dangerous disaster is flood, who demolished whole possession, areas , abridge farmers food and reserves on the winter-tide. Water flowed with very large current may demolish even large construction. Thereby, that England surrounded is by seas and massy sum rainfall often engenders rising waters levels.
1. Architecture
The oldest, small anyway monuments of architecture in England are of Roman origin; was it buildings public usefulness. Very much small are also monuments beforeromanesque of epoch. From 10th and 11th century date little, stone churchs, and also slendel, round towers, pointed endings. In 12th century began domination of Gothic style, which in England devided an three terms:
Early English, early gothic to 1300 year, with cathedral in Canterbury, Rincoln, Wells, Salisbury;
Decorated Style, dated to 1400 year, with fan-shaped, reticular vaultings ( Westminister Abbey, cathedral in York, Lichfield, Exeter, chapter hall in Wells );
Perpendicular Style, with perpendicular sticking ( laic buildings how Geuldhall in London, university buildings in Oxfort and Cambridge. Renaissance didn't oust properly Gothic form in English architecture. Tudor's style (to about 1500 year) keep Gothic construction, seize also superficialy surely motifs of renaissance. Barely Inigo Jones beside end 14th century introduced classical forms in Paladin character. Near by this two, main trends unwinded middle-class Queen Anne Style, to which in 19th century linked Norman Shaw.
2. Painting:
The Oldest painting monuments kept from 7th century second term development this painting happened in 12th century originate than famous illustrations psalters English - norman school. With mural painting keep are all the way to fire in 1834 year very interesting fresco in Westminister, keep altar pictures with Hiob legend ( about 1400 year), characteristic for style by tours carpeting character and profusion gold. Gothic, English stained glass windows, characterize subtlety with seeting colours, origined in diffrent epochs; most of all in cathedral in York. In Gothic epoch miniature painting blossmed in cloisters.
The 15th century didn't left in England considerable monuments. Renaissance epoch present work of art Holbein. In 17th century blossmed parteaiting painting; 1632 year Charles 1st brought to England A. van Dyck, for this king made Rubens decoration works. About 1750 year appeared famous portrait-painters: Sir Joshua Reynolds, Th. Gainsborough and little late G. Romney. High bloom water-colour painting achieved in 1850 year to foundation "Society of Painters in Watercolours", Landscaping painting present: G.Morland, J.Constable J.W.Turner, genre painting whereas. D. Wilkie, Under the influence of Ruskin founded in 1848 year " Praerafalite Brohterhood " with artists how Hunt, Millais, D.G. Rossetti. Praerafaliats made a big whatever in English painting. New trends 20th century together with expressionism found in England feeble sound.
3. Sculpture
Medieval monuments, English sculpture have distinct stigma continent influences. Native character showed barely in 13th and 14th century in cathedral sculpture in Lincoln, Exeter and Wells. Mediaeval, bronze tombs there are in Westminister Abbey. Monuments from 16th century are largely pops of Italian artist, from 17th century German and Naderlandic. First, most considerable, English sculptor is Nicolas Stone, creator of portals in Oxford, Grinling gibbons is creator of statues Charles 1st and Jacob 2nd. In 18th century artist employed small sculptures. In 19th century came to the fore portrait-painters: E.H. Baily (creator column Nelson on Trafalgar Square) and sir Francis Chantrey. Expressionism trend was equally small assumes as in sculpture as in English painting.
Agriculture and neat culture enacted past developments manufacture main soil in economical living England, although percentage took up with that off year per annum falls. Once soil concerned 72,6%, browses 10%, and forests 5% surface of country. By many different cases agriculture in England in present time is very lithely developed. Climate of country, overmuch wet, at cold and sunless years and possessive relations very negatively affected on the agriculture growth, that too national productions wasn't surmounts requirements. More unfurled is only south and southeastward part of England. Big weight in sustenance nation barring breedings neat has too fishing marine.
Biggest wealth in England are seam, and particulary pit coal, whose reserves threateningly in soon time exhaustlessness. On the second place is iron, occurring on the whole near by coal, however his productions isn't surmounts whole national consumption. On the next places are salt , tin copper, wolfram, plumb, zinc, graphite.
In connection with richness seams industry explicated up to big volumes. Large weight in English industry has worsted industry, which bunches most of all in Yorkshire, in a while Lancashire is main centre cottony industry. Littler weight has metal industry and connected with ere construction ships and machines. On the background stands dermal industry, vitreous, porcelain, ceramic, chemical, paper, woody, brewer and weed.
London is a wonderful place to be ! It has great museums with priceless exhibits, old markets, clean green parks and the best shops and night clubs in Europe. There is something for everyone.
London is situated on the River Thames about 40 miles from sea. It was founded by the Romans in A.D. 43 and became a succesful and important city. After 1066 William the Conquer constructed one of the most famous landmarks of the city - the Tower of London. In 1500 it had a population of about 50,000 and was much bigger than the original medieval boundaries. Sheakespeare's theatre was built within this new area of London.
Now London has around 7 milion people living in and around it. It is a financial and cultural centre but it is probably most famous for being the home of the British monarchy. You can see the changing of the Guards everyday outside the Buckingham Palace.
London also has some of the world's best departament stores including Harrods. But the most visited place is the British Museum with exhibits from all over the world. In the evening you can go to one of many theatres and see one of many musicals. Situated near the Baker Street tube station, these attractions one two of the most popular that London has to offer. Madame Tussaud first arrived in the capitals in 1802 cristocrats and ever since her wax models have been pulling in the crowds. The exhibitions are split into several sections in which visitors can see replicas of the famous and the infamous from both past and present. Models include: politicians like Margaret Thatcher and Lenin, pop stars like the Beatles and royalty like Prince Charles and Lady Di.
London is one of the most interesting cities in Europe. During holidays many tourists from all over the world come to London.
The places tourist always want to visit are the Houses of Parliament and the famous clock "BIG BEN". Very close to the Houses of Parliament is Westminister Abbey where many kings and queens, poets and other outstanding persons are buried. Tower Bridge and the Tower of London are also worth seeing, as well as one of the biggest cathedral in the world - St. Paul's Cathedral. Buckingham Palace where the Queen and her family live is also a great attraction for visitors.
There are many museums in London, one of the most interesting is the Museum of Madame Tussaud where you can see wax figures of politicians, film stars, kings and queens and other damous people. Tourists also visit the British Museum and the Tate Gallery. They also go to Picadily Circus with it's Eros statue and Trafalgar Square with it's Column of Nelson and to Hyde Park, Oxford Street and Soho. There are many other places to see in London, so it is imposible to see everything in one day or even one week.
School
In England, education is decentalized. Apart from schools which are state supported and publicly maintained, there are also the so called "public schools" which are independent and which charge high fees for studying.
Education in England is obligatory between the ages of five and fifteen. At the age of five, children go to Infant School. At the age of seven they move to Junior School where they stay until they are eleven. At the age eleven children take the so-called "eleven plus" examination, determining which type of secondary school they will attend. However, this early selection has been strongly criticized and that is why many comprehensive schools excluding this stressful examination have been set up.
There are three types of secondary school in England. Childreen may go to grammar schools, secondary modern schools and secondary technical schools. Only about 25% of the pupils attend grammar schools. They provide education of an academic type and many students go on to university upon graduation. More children go to secondary modern schools which give a general but also more practical education.
Many pupils leave school at the age of fifteen, but others stay on until they are sixteen. Most grammar school children stay at school until the age of seventeen or eighteen. Upon leaving, pupils may take an examination for the General Certificate of Education. It consists of two levels: 0-level (ordinary), usually taken at the age of 16, and A-level (advenced) taken at the age of eighteen or nineteen.
After completing secondary education, some young people go to a colleges or universities. Universities offer two types of studies: undergraduate ones. At the age of twenty one, students usually get a Bachelor's Degree and at the age of twenty three - a Master's Degree.
The most famous universities in England are London University, Oxford and Cambridge.
St Valentine’s Day
February 14 is known as St Valentine’s Day. It is mainly observed by young people who on that day give symbolic gifts to people they love. They also send special greetings cards called Valentines. The contents of Valentines are usually poems or declarations of love, such as: "Roses are red, violets are blue, grass is green and I love you". It is also commonplace to give the beloved flowers or candy on that day.
Some people complain that this is a commercial holiday. Despite the criticism, the claim that it adds colour to they every day lives.
Easter

Easter is preceded by forty days of Lent. Shrove Tuesday is the last day before the period of fasting which starts on Ash Wednesday. Traditionaly, it is the time of enjoyment and eating pancakes, hence it is often called Pancakes Day. Ash Wednesday is a very solemn day when ash is sprinkled on the heads of members of the congregration. The Sunday before Easter is called Palm Sunday. On this day small crosses made of palm are given to the worshippers. This is the beginning of Holy Week.
A very interesting custom is maintained on Thursday, known as Maundy Thursday, when the sovereign gives some elderly people presents of Maundy money (coins which are specially minted for that occasion). The number of coins equals the sovereign's age in years and the presentation usually takes place in a selected cathedral city.
Maundy Thursday is followed by Good Friday. It is celebrated as a bank holiday. People do not go to work on that day and eat the so called hot cross buns containing currants and marked with a cross (this symbol reminds one of the crucifixion of Christ).
The central day of Easter is Easter Sunday, the Christian Feast of the Resurrection of Jesus. On this day Christians follow the old tradition of the eating Easter eggs. Many families gather together at dinner and orranize egg hunts. Childreen have a lot of fun looking for dyed eggs hidden in the house or in the yard. Except for chocolate eggs, rabbits and chicks for children, presents are not given on Easter. People usuallly confine themselves to sending Easter cards to their friends and family.
The day after Easter is known as Easter monday. It is the last day of Easter celeberation and it is regarded as the beginning of the summer tourist season.
Halloween
Few holidays tell us as much of the past as Halloween. It's origins date back hundreds of years to the Druid festival of Sanhain, Lord of the Dead and Prince of Darknees, who, according to Celtic belief, gathered up to souls of all those who had died during the year to present them to Druid Heaven on October 31st. The Sun god shared the holiday and received thanks for the year's harvest.
The Druid New Year began on November 1st, marking the begginning of winter and the reign of the Lord of Death. The Druids called upon supernatural forces to placate the evil spirits, and it is from that tradition that modern Halloween gets the paraphernalia of ghosts, goblins, witches, skeletons, cats, masks and bonfires.
The custom of telling ghost stories on Halloween also comes from the Druids. To honour the Sun god and to frighten away evil spirits, they would light huge bonfires atop high hills and as they sat grouped around watching the bright flames, they would relate eerie happenings they had experienced.
As Christianity replaced the pagan religions, the church set aside November 1st to honour all saints (all-hallows) and called it All Hallows' Day. The evening before October 31st, became All Hallows' Eve - later shortened to Halloween.
Halloween customs today, although gay and frolicsome rather than sober, follow many of these ancient practices. When children wear ghost costumes, false faces or witches's hats, bob for apples, eat corn candy, or carry jack-o-lanterns they are carrying on an accumulation of ancient traditions whose significanse has long since disappeared.
The jack-o-lantern, most typical of Halloween symbols, began with the Irish. According to legend a man nemed Jack, who was kept out of Heaven because he was stingy and expelled from Hell for playing tricks on the Devil, was condemned to walk the earth forever carring a lantern to light his way.
On that day youngsters play pranks, others are gathered for a party where they enjoy a taffy pulling contest, bobbing for apples, telling ghost stories or playing games which feature spooks. The party goers play pranks on their way home.
Christmas
Christmas is the most popular family holiday in England. On 24 December ussualy all preparations for Christmas are complete. Christmas greeting cards are exchanged, a Christmas tree is decorated and presents are purchased. In many work places the annual parties are held and shops and banks close earlier. Late in the evening some people go to church to attend the so called "midnight mass". Children do not forget about hanging up old socks at the heads of their beds as they believe that Santa Claus who arrives in a sledge drawn by reindeer visits each child's house and leaves wonderful presents.
Christmas Eve is followed by Christmas Day (25 December) which is the most important day of Christmas. Early in the morning children wake up and open their presents. At midday the whole family gathers at the Christmas table. Christmas dinner traditionally consists of roast turkey, mince pies and rich Christmas pudding decorated with holly and containing delicacies, dried fruit and spices. Everyone eats one's fill and children have much fun pulling "crackers" (cardboard tubes containing small presents, printed jokes and a paper hat and jokes are read. On this day the Queen deliviers an annual oration on television.
26 December, following Christmas Day, is called Boxing Day. It is celebreted as a bank holiday. On this day people give presents of money to paperboys or dustmen. They visit their friends or arrange parties. This is the last non-working day and the last day of the Christmas celebration. However, the Christmas season continues until the twelfth day after Christmas Day (6 January).
Sport and more
Football in England is a national sport and magnanimity recreation. England possesses one off the best league in Europe styled Premiersip. There are clubs off largest towns and some smaller. Clubs are represented not only by footballers off England, but also from Scotland, Wales, Germany, Italy and from Africa and South America. The best clubs are Manchester United, Chelsea London, Liverpool, Arsenal London and Newcastle. Liverpool possessed the best young player in the whole league. His name is Michael Owen. His talent upon once first elicited during the World Championships in France '98 when he guyed of all defenders. On the stadiums came many people wishful good football match. In London is located reputed stadium Wembley, whereupon are played matches of the representation of England. Polish representation dislikes this stadium, because playing in there is very difficult. However football isn't solely sport in England, many people like sometimes play cricket or rugby.
Englishmen, like people from the other countries, in free time listen to music. History of music began in 1957 year when birthing repute groupe The Beatles. Primely at the time young boys performed in clubs, dance saloon and labour club-room in Liverpool and in Hamburg. Members groupe that: John Lennon - rhythmical guitar, harmonica, organ and piano, Paul McCartney - bass guitar, piano, organ, guitar, George Harrison - solo guitar, and Ringo Starr - percussion. The largest pushier were songs: "Yesterday" , "Love Me Do", "Please, Please Me". Musicians ecstasized auditors freshness melodies, different styles inter alia rock and roll and European ballad. Their popularity commuted in worship. Up to present day wasn't better groupe than the Beatles. Other renowned groups are inter alia: The Rolling Stones, whom up to present-day play and so sheerly middling, although they've yet their years so still they've idols all over the world; The Animals; The Kings (1964-1972). Today England ecstasize group girls styled Spice Girls. They're popular not only on the islands, but either in the other countries. This groupe play pop music, which is most liked by young people.
Stonehenge, one off largest megalitic structures built within of late neolithic and early epochs bronze (about 1800-1400 B.C..), about 13 km to the north of Salisbury, in southernly England. Centre megalit constitutes stone altar ranked inside horseshoes constructions 5 trills, compound off blocs at lengths 9 m and tonnage about 50 tone and 19 smaller rocks. Encloses her circle 50 stones, skirted outside circle constructed off 30 huge rocks at altitudes about 4 m, top transverse blocs. Whole surrounds trough and wall earthen at diameters about 115 m, wherewith connects walkway orientate on the axis rising sun within summerly equinoxes. We might thing, that Stonehenge has been built as stead worship Welkins (Suns and Moon)....


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Czytano: 1055370 , autor: sylwester811 , Ocena: 294.07

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⇒Dodano: 2008-02-03 11:22:23
⇒Czytano: 1055370
Autor: sylwester811


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